The First Treaty of Indian Springs, or more formally the Treaty with the Creeks, 1821, entailed the Creeks ceding their remaining land east of the Flint River in Georgia to the United States. The treaty made the Creek National Council even more determined to cede no more land.
When did the Treaty of Indian Springs?
This treaty between the federal government, represented by commissioners Duncan Campbell and James Meriwether, and a minority of Creek Indians, led by William McIntosh, was signed on February 12, 1825 and ratified by the Senate on March 7, 1825.
Why did William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs?
Because McIntosh led a group that negotiated and signed the Treaty of Indian Springs in February 1825, which ceded much of remaining Creek lands to the United States in violation of Creek law, for the first time the Creek National Council ordered that a Creek be executed for crimes against the Nation. …
What did the Creek Indians have to give up in the Treaty of Indian Springs?
TREATY OF INDIAN SPRINGS (January 8, 1821): This treaty extended Georgia territory further west. … He and several more of the chiefs that signed it were assassinated for surrendering all remaining claims the Creeks had to Georgia land.
Where did the Creek go when all of their remaining land in Georgia was sold in the 2nd Treaty of Indian Springs?
McIntosh agreed to cede all Muscogee lands east of the Chattahoochee River, including the sacred Ocmulgee National Monument, to Georgia and Alabama, and accepted relocation west of the Mississippi River to an equivalent parcel of land along the Arkansas River.
What role did McIntosh play in the Creek removal from Georgia?
William McIntosh was a Creek chief who signed the Treaty of Indian Springs. He signed it with his cousin, GA governor George Troup. This gave away the last remaining creek lands in GA and caused him to be excuted by his people.
Why did the Creek not recognize the Treaty of Indian Springs as legitimate?
Led by Chief McIntosh, the Creek Indians ceded all land between the Flint and Ocmulgee Rivers and north to the Chattahoochee River on January 8, 1821, in the First Treaty of Indian Springs. Two years later, the treaty was declared invalid because of rumors of bribery and coercion.
How did McIntosh regain his status with the Creek?
After the war, the Creek Nation suffered through a terrible famine and McIntosh used this opportunity to regain his status in Creek society by befriending a U.S. Indian agent. Due to this alliance, McIntosh gained the influential position of allocating food and supplies to those Creeks in need.
How did the Creeks react to the Indian Removal Act?
Most Creeks were overwhelmingly opposed to the land cession, and the sale of land without the approval of the Creek National Council was punishable by death under Creek law. … The Treaty of Washington restored Creek land within Alabama but allowed the state of Georgia to keep ceded Creek lands.
Who was removed by the Trail of Tears?
The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail commemorates the removal of the Cherokee and the paths that 17 Cherokee detachments followed westward.
What impact did the signing of the Treaty have on William McIntosh?
In 1825 McIntosh negotiated and signed the Treaty of Indian Springs, signing away all Creek lands in Georgia and thereby defying most of the reforms that he had encouraged and the laws that he had helped write.
Is the Creek tribe still around today?
Today, the Muscogee (Creek) Nation is located in Oklahoma and has land claims in the Florida panhandle. The Tribal headquarters is located in Okmulgee, Oklahoma, and the tribe has approximately 44,000 tribal members.
Why were the Creek removed from Georgia?
The Creek Indians, who had always been excellent farmers, adapted quickly to a cotton-based economy. But American settlers wanted the land for themselves and saw the Creek Indians as obstacles to “progress.” Pressure increased on the federal government to remove all Indians to areas west of the Mississippi River.
What happened to the Creek tribe during the Trail of Tears?
The final battle at Horseshoe Bend resulted in the total defeat of the Creek Nation. … Of the 22,000 Creek Indians who set out on the Trail of Tears, only half actually made it to Oklahoma. Creek Tribal Chief Sam Moniac was among the approximately 4000 who died on the Trail due to exposure, starvation and disease.