Kolkata, Bengali Kalikata, formerly Calcutta, city, capital of West Bengal state, and former capital (1772–1911) of British India. It is one of India’s largest cities and one of its major ports.
When did Kolkata became the capital of India?
Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General of India, made it the seat of the supreme courts of justice and the supreme revenue administration, and Calcutta became the capital of British India in 1772.
Why was Calcutta the capital of British India?
The capital was shifted from Calcutta as Delhi was the financial and political seat of many earlier empires and was located closer to the geographical center of India. The rising nationalist movement in Calcutta was also responsible for the shift.
When did India’s capital change from Kolkata to Delhi?
However, it was 20 years later that King George V, during his visit to India, announced that New Delhi will replace Kolkata (then Calcutta) as national capital. And finally, on February 13, 1931 Lord Irwin inaugurated the new capital – New Delhi.
How old is Kolkata?
Calcutta was established in the year 1686 as a result of the expansion plans of the British Raj. On August 24, 1686, Job Charnock, who was believed to be the founder of Calcutta first came to the village of Sutanuti as a representative of the British East India Company to establish a factory.
Which is the first capital of India?
During the British Raj, until 1911, Calcutta was the capital of India. By the latter half of the 19th century, Shimla had become the summer capital. King George V proclaimed the transfer of the capital from Calcutta to Delhi at the climax of the 1911 Imperial Durbar on 12 December 1911.
What is the second capital of India?
The English rulers considered Nagpur as the centre of India and hence identified this point and constructed the Zero Mile Stone. Being at the center of the country, they also had a plan to make Nagpur the second capital city.
Why is Kolkata called Kolkata?
According to some, Kalikata is derived from the Bengali word Kalikshetra, meaning “Ground of (the goddess) Kali.” Some say the city’s name derives from the location of its original settlement on the bank of a canal (khal). … In 2001 the government of West Bengal officially changed the name of the city to Kolkata.
Who made Delhi the capital of India?
In December 1911 King George V of Britain decreed that the capital of British India would be moved from Calcutta (which is today called Kolkata) to Delhi. Construction began in 1912 at a site about 3 miles (5 km), south of the Delhi city centre, and the new capital was formally dedicated in 1931.
What is the capital of America?
Since the U.S. Congress was established by the Constitution in 1789, it has convened in three locations: New York, Philadelphia, and its permanent home in Washington, D.C.
What is the capital of Punjab?
Chandigarh (/ˌtʃʌndɪˈɡɑːr/; local pronunciation: [tʃə̃ɳˈɖiːɡəɽʱ]) is a city, district and union territory in India that serves as the joint capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana.
Is Kolkata a dead city?
In 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a “dying city” in light of its socio-political woes. In the period 1977–2011, West Bengal was governed from Kolkata by the Left Front, which was dominated by the Communist Party of India (CPM).
Why is Kolkata so poor?
This extreme form of poverty in Kolkata stems from several factors. … The partition of Bengal in 1947 left raw material suppliers of commodities like Jute in East Bengal (now Bangladesh) and the mills in West Bengal, particularly around Kolkata which was then a flourishing port.
Who named Kolkata?
The place was known for its manufacture of shell-lime, the name deriving from kali (“lime”) and kata (“burnt shell”) The name is derived from the Bengali kilkila (“flat area”), which is mentioned in the old literature. The name came into being when Job Charnock asked a farmer the name of the area around Hooghly River.